- Paul I
Tsar of Russia (1796--1801), born in St Petersburg, Russia, the second son of Peter III and Catherine II. His father's murder and his mother's neglect exerted a baneful influence on his character, and after succeeding his mother to the throne he soon revealed his violent temper and lack of capacity, and irritated his subjects by vexatious regulations. He suddenly declared for the Second Coalition Allies against France (1798), and sent an army of 56`000 into Italy. He sent a second army to co-operate with the Austrians, retired from the alliance, quarrelled with England, and entered into close alliance with Napoleon. After his convention with Sweden and Denmark, England sent a fleet into the Baltic under Nelson to dissolve the coalition (1801). His own officers conspired to compel him to abdicate, and in a scuffle he was strangled.